The IHST, The Elephant, The Rider and The Path

A lot of smart, highly experienced helicopter people are frustrated. Since its inception in 2006, a lot of work has been done for the International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) with the goal of preventing accidents, but helicopters are still crashing from entirely preventable causes. Some IHST supporters have asked, “How do we fix stupid?” Others ask, “How can we reach the people who own and operate their own helicopters and don’t come to our safety conferences?” Psychology, neuroscience and a simple analogy about riding elephants may hold the key.

Here is why you need to know something about this potential key to preventing more accidents. Helicopters save lives and enable work that would be difficult or impossible by other means. Despite their vital role in society, the public perception of helicopters is not as positive as it might be if the industry could improve its safety record. Despite recent progress, there are still far too many accidents occurring for all-too-familiar reasons. These accidents can be prevented!

There are over 500 people from all around the world doing volunteer work for the IHST. The IHST’s regional teams have analyzed over 1,000 helicopter accidents and produced toolkits, brochures, fact sheets, videos and other materials to promote the best accident prevention methods identified by those analyses. Since the IHST’s inception and all this work, the number of helicopter accidents happening around the world each year has declined, but with people still dying in preventable accidents, there is still much more to be done.

If you look at the body of work done by the IHST and made available for free on its website ( you might conclude with an objective mindset that the IHST has clearly identified the most common causes of helicopter accidents and provided more-than-sufficient means to prevent those accidents. The IHST has indeed made a compelling case for improved helicopter safety, but that case has been tailored to the conscious, logical mind. Recent research in psychology and neuroscience show us, however, that at least 95% of the decisions we make every day do not engage our conscious minds. Most of our decisions take place instinctively in our unconscious minds.

In two books[1] Psychologist Jonathan Haidt offers a useful analogy, which points to what might be missing from the approach taken so far by the IHST. Haidt likens our unconscious minds to an elephant and our conscious minds to an elephant rider. The rider can train the elephant and influence its direction, but when rider and elephant come into conflict about which way to go, the elephant wins. Chip and Dan Heath’s book Switch uses Haidt’s analogy and describes how to train the elephant to follow the rider’s desired path.

The IHST has been talking and writing to the elephant rider, but appears to have failed to reach, in an effective way, the elephant. It is time to acknowledge the “elephant in the room.”


The book Switch offers key steps for directing the rider, motivating the elephant and shaping the path for the elephant (see Attachment 1). Having already given lots of direction for the rider, the IHST might gain the most by focusing on the steps for motivating the elephant and shaping the path.

The Heath brothers suggest that the first step for motivating the elephant is to “Find The Feeling”. They give examples of how behavior changes were caused by getting people to see and feel, firsthand, the results of the actions that need to change. In the commercial helicopter industry this approach will likely need to show the key actors (owners, pilots, and maintenance technicians) the very human and vulnerable side of the trusting customers who use their services. In the case of individuals who fly their own helicopters, this approach will likely need to show the potential impacts on the families and friends who depend on these pilots to get home safely.

The Heath brothers’ second step for motivating the elephant is to “Shrink The Change”. The IHST has already focused on four key areas for accident prevention (Safety Management Systems, training, systems & equipment, and maintenance practices). To follow the Heath brothers’ advice for motivating the elephant, it might be best to narrow the focus on just one thing that will do the most good. With personal/private operators being the source of the most accidents, perhaps preflight risk assessment is the one thing that needs the most emphasis for now.

The third step for motivating the elephant is to “Grow Your People.” For the IHST, this means creating a sense of identity around safe helicopter flying. Emirates Airline’s Human Factors Manager, Nicklas Dahlstrom, once observed during a meeting of the IHST’s Middle East & North Africa (MENA) team that the pride of the helicopter profession seems to be in overcoming great risks to do heroic deeds. Nicklas urged the IHST to find ways to make safety the pride of the helicopter profession.

The Heath brothers’ advice on shaping the path for the elephant might help create a sense of identity around safety in the helicopter industry. Their advice aligns with the advice given by Charles Duhigg in his book The Power Of Habit.   Safety Management Systems (SMS), training programs, maintenance practices and systems and equipment like health & usage monitoring systems (HUMS) and flight data monitoring (FDM) programs can “tweak the environment” and build habit-strength safe behaviors. Leadership is key to “rally the herd” behind safety.

The IHST has done the analysis to justify its recommendations. The IHST has provided the tools to appeal to the elephant rider and those tools can build the path for changing the elephant’s behavior. Consistent with the promotion element required in SMSs, the IHST and all those who support it must do more to motivate the elephant. We must connect to deep emotions and challenge the beliefs that lead to unsafe behaviors. We must focus on the key change that will do the most good and lead to other supporting changes – like tipping over the first domino in a line of dominoes. Along the way, we must use our best marketing skills to make safety the pride of the helicopter industry.

[1] The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom and The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion

Attachment 1


A role in society to be carried on?

In early August 2014, Brian Codd, former SAS officer and icon at Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club near London, died of cancer just a few days before the beginning of the Carnegie Shield competition at Royal Dornoch in northeastern Scotland. I’d first met Brian at the Carnegie Shield competition and he’d sponsored my membership at Royal Mid-Surrey.   He’d introduced me to former European PGA champion David Talbot and the group of gentlemen who play friendly matches every Saturday and Sunday afternoon at Royal Mid-Surrey. We played together as partners many times and usually won because Brian always played well when I didn’t.  Brian was a bit like an older brother to me.

He not only followed the rules, he enforced them. No mobile phone use on the course or even in the club house. Punctuality meant being ready early and starting on time. Golf has always been a game of high integrity and Brian was a guardian of golf’s integrity and etiquette.

Brian was of Irish descent, but you might’ve thought he was Dutch from his directness. Brian called things the way he saw them and spoke plainly and assertively. Some might have said that Brian complained a lot. He didn’t suffer fools and no shortcoming escaped his criticism.

Brian was a fixture among the group of gentlemen who played the afternoon “roll up” at Royal Mid-Surrey. Some were annoyed by his manner, but no one stayed away because of it. He was as an expected part of the experience. He was respected for his constancy. You could count on Brian to be Brian.

After his simple Benedictine memorial service at mid-day at Ealing Abbey, the family and the many Royal Mid-Surrey members who attended the service adjourned to the upstairs dining room at Royal Mid-Surrey for a luncheon reception. Some members who had turned out for Brian’s memorial service and reception confessed how they didn’t really like Brian, yet they had what they termed “massive respect” for him.

Like many people in life, Brian protected the boundaries for acceptable behavior. Perhaps he might have been even more endearing if he’d been more tactful, but he earned respect despite his blunt approach because he was willing to stand up for what he believed was right. People respected him because he was willing to say what they would’ve liked to have said.

The rule of law, business ethics and basic civility depend on people like Brian who preserve the boundaries for acceptable behavior. For the rest of my life, I will strive more than ever to be the best of what I saw in Brian. Perhaps with a bit more empathy for others, but with no less commitment to stand up for what is right. Rest in peace Brian. Others will pick up where you left off.